Everyone knows that when people are old and middle-aged, osteoporosis is prone to occur, and osteoporosis is very harmful. So what is osteoporosis? What are the manifestations of osteoporosis? For the elderly, what are the measures to prevent osteoporosis? Let’s learn together today.
What is osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a systemic bone disease characterized by decreased bone mass and microstructural destruction of the bone, manifested by increased fragility of the bone, and thus the risk of fracture is greatly increased, even for minor trauma or Fractures are also prone to occur without trauma. Osteoporosis is a chronic disease caused by multiple factors. There is usually no special clinical manifestation before the fracture occurs. More women than men are common in postmenopausal women and the elderly. The most important factor in osteoporosis is heredity. If the parents have osteoporosis, have had a fragility fracture, and have a higher probability of osteoporosis and brittle fracture, they are higher than the average person. Followed by age. Before the age of 30, the activity of osteoblasts was higher than that of osteoclasts, and the bone density generally increased. After 30 years old, it gradually decreased. Finally, lifestyle, underweight, excessive drinking, smoking, lack of physical exercise, high sodium diet, and insufficient calcium intake all increase the probability of suffering from osteoporosis.
Manifestation of osteoporosis
The most common symptoms of primary osteoporosis are more common in low back pain, accounting for 70% to 80% of patients with pain. The pain spreads along the spine to the sides, and the pain is relieved when lying on the back or sitting. When standing up or standing upright, the pain is exacerbated when sitting for a long time, bending, coughing, and exacerbation when the stool is forced. Bone pain can occur when the bone mass is lost by more than 12%. In elderly osteoporosis, the vertebral body is compressed and deformed, the spine is flexed, and the muscles are fatigued and even paralyzed, causing pain. New thoracolumbar vertebral compression fractures can also produce acute pain, and the spine processes in the corresponding sites can have strong tenderness and snoring pain. If the corresponding spinal nerves are compressed, it can produce radiation pain in the extremities, sensory dyskinesia in both lower extremities, intercostal neuralgia, and post-sternal pain similar to angina. If the spinal cord and cauda equina are compressed, it also affects the function of the bladder and rectum.
2. Shortened length, hunchback
More often after the pain. The anterior part of the vertebral body has a large weight, especially the 11th and 12th thoracic vertebrae, and the 3rd lumbar vertebrae. The load is larger, it is easy to compress and deform, and the spine is inclined forward to form a hunchback. As the age increases, the osteoporosis increases, and the kyphosis curvature Increase, the elderly vertebral body compression when osteoporosis, each vertebral body shortened by about 2 mm, the body length was shortened by an average of 3 to 6 cm.
It is the most common and serious complication of degenerative osteoporosis.
4. Respiratory function decline
Compression of the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae, a posterior curve of the spine, and thoracic deformity can significantly reduce the lung capacity and maximum ventilation. Patients often have chest tightness, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing.
Osteoporosis prevention measures
Increase calcium intake.
Studies have shown that in the long-term low-calcium diet, the risk of osteoporosis in older people can reach more than 79%, and only 1/4 of those who take long-term calcium-rich diet suffer from osteoporosis. Therefore, calcium is best obtained from food. Even if osteoporosis has been determined, the doctor will guide the patient to improve the diet and appropriate oral calcium. Everyone (especially the middle-aged and the elderly) should pay great attention to calcium supplementation by eating more calcium-containing foods. Milk, bone soup, seafood, and green leafy vegetables contain rich calcium ions that can be absorbed by the body. Eating more of these foods is beneficial to increase calcium intake. At present, medical nutritionists especially recommend milk. The middle-aged and elderly people insist on drinking 500 ml of milk per day, which can greatly reduce the incidence of osteoporosis.
Maintain adequate protein intake.
Protein is the basic unit of human tissue cells and is extremely important for the maintenance of the bone matrix. If a long-term low-protein diet causes insufficient protein synthesis in the bone matrix, bone density decreases and osteoporosis is induced. Therefore, medical nutritionists point out that middle-aged and elderly people must ensure that they meet the protein and nutrient needs of the body and consume sufficient food protein. Eggs, lean meat, milk, beans, and fish and shrimp are high-protein foods that should be reasonably matched to ensure supply.
Good habit of not smoking and drinking less.
Studies have shown that harmful substances and their toxins in alcohol and tobacco can cause bone cell poisoning and destruction, which leads to a decrease in bone mass and induces osteoporosis. The survey found that nearly 80% of men with osteoporosis of the spine have a long history of heavy smoking and alcohol abuse. It can be seen that people should try not to smoke and drink less, at least not smoking a lot, not drinking alcohol. Especially after middle age, be sure to quit smoking and avoid alcohol. Even if you drink alcohol, you only drink a small amount of low-alcohol such as beer, wine, and rice wine, and strictly control the amount and frequency of drinking.
Actively participate in sports.
Insist on exercise not only enhances the strength and bone mass of the bone, but also maintains the flexibility of your body, not so stiff, and can largely prevent the occurrence of osteoporosis. The long-term lack of exercise has led to a rapid decline in bone mass in the elderly, and the risk of severe osteoporosis or even spontaneous fractures is far greater than that of people who exercise regularly. Therefore, people must develop a habit of exercising from adolescence, and in the elderly, they should still arrange appropriate exercise programs according to their physical condition, no less than 3 days a week, which helps prevent osteoporosis and reduce severe bone. The occurrence of looseness